Dualism: The conviction that all concepts within the world fundamentally consist of two contrasting qualities, such as good and evil, or body and mind.
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Friedrich Nietzsche was most famously concerned with the problem of nihilism. All societies, in his view, rely on implicit value judgments. If the foundations of these are lost, he predicts terrible consequences: widespread apathy or violent, fanatical attempts to reclaim a sense of purpose, or perhaps both.
Determinism: The proposition that all events, including those of human thoughts, are causally determined by an unbroken chain of prior events.
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On 27 February 1907, at Berggasse 19 in Vienna, Sigmund Freud fell in love. The object of his affection was Carl Gustav Jung.
Constructivism: The view that reality, and the methods we use to understand it, are man-made, subjective constructions rather than an objective reading of events.
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